The United Republic of Latin America (República Unida de América Latina in Spanish & República Unida da América Latina in Portuguese) is a nation located in South and Central America. Latin America (as it's colloquially known) is a Secondary Power whose strength today is more than Spain itself. Latin America is home to 626 million people, has a GDP of $7,531,585 million (one of the lowest of any Recognized Power) and unknown military power (Latin America is very secretive about it's military).
The Latin American Union found it's origins in the Latin American Wars of independence which in this timeline led to the signing of The Treaty of Simon Bolivar in 1831, after the victory and independence of Ecuador in 1830, which was administered by a council consisting of Bolivar himself, Francisco de Miranda, José de San Martín, Antonio José de Sucre, Miguel Hidalgo, Francisco de Paula Santander, Antonio Nariño, José Miguel Carrera, Ramon Castilla, Toussaint L'Ouverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Vicente Guerrero, José María Morelos, Bernardo O'Higgins, Pedro I and José Gervasio Artigas along with 100 advisers who were citizens of the various regions of Latin America (and Haiti) that could veto anything they deemed against their interest. It was established that Latin America would be a Confederation of semi-autonomous states, although fully united, that Latin America would include the Guianas, who in this TL joined the revolt. Latin America would also include Haiti as Haiti could see the benefits of joining the Union. It was established that Spanish and Portuguese were to be the official languages, with French Creole Varieties and Italian being recognized minority languages. Secession of any province of the Republic would be deemed illegal under the Latin American constitution.
The first Prime Minister of Latin America Edit
It was decided Simon Bolivar would be decidedly the first prime minister of Latin America, starting on January 1st 1832. He would be prime minister for 2 terms until he lost to Bernardino Rivadavia in 1840. Bolivor would be a hero to the people for life and even long after his death in this TL in 1879 at age 96. A holiday, Bolivar day, is celebrated in his honor on July 24th (the day he was born in 1783) of each year since 1900.
War of Texan Independence & The Latin-American War (October 2, 1835 - February 2, 1837) Edit
The war of Texan independence and the Latin-American War were one extended war between Latin America and Texas, leading into America. At first the war was about the Texan Revolution, which occurred do to Latin America letting American settlers (mostly from the Southern United States) settle some Northern provinces, including Tejas and Alta California to increase the population and keep the Native Americans from ruling the region. This lead to Texans (who had the highest numbers of American settlers) wanting more freedom from their Latin American owners. Texas declared itself independent of Latin America on October 2, 1835 with Sam Houston leading the cause and winning the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21st 1836. This would be the last battle Texas would win as Latin America turned the tables in the Battle of El Paso, which occurred in this TL on June 20th 1836 and involved the dissolution of the independent Texan Army who had to desert after losing 1/3 of it's men. This lead to the United States declaring war to help Texas in it's goal of independence mostly do to demand from the Southern Slave States to intervene. The United States sent in a 12,000 men army to San Antonio which was caught by a 4500 men Latin American army near Austin. The Latin American army dug trenches in the desert on the night of August 3rd 1836 while the Americans slept and picked off nearly 8000 men one by one from the safety of their trench. The American Army fled by cover of darkness when they realized they didn't stand a chance. This could be seen as the beginning of true Trench Warfare. The United States proposed peace on September the 3rd 1836 and peace talks began. It took many months for peace to be firmly established as Alta California had tried to rebel as well near the end of the war but was easily crushed by Latin American forces. The peace was formerly established on February 2nd 1837 and declared Texas (Tejas) and Alta California as integral parts of Latin America and that the US would withdraw all forces by March 1st. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which established the former terms was signed by both parties.
Southern Protests of the Treaty and calls for secession (1847-1860) Edit
Instantly the Southern US protested the Treaty vigorously, calling for the "Yankees" to reconsider before signing it. The South didn't get it's way however, and the Union went on with formerly establishing peace. This lead to the first act of hostilities from the South when John Brown was arrested for the Raid On Harpers Ferry and hung shortly there after on December 2nd 1859. The worst part was he was buried with the Noose still around his neck. The Union demanded a former apology from Virginia, but never heard back. Virginia declared it's former secession (which was technically not illegal because it wasn't mentioned in the Constitution) shortly there after on February 3rd 1860,
followed by Mississippi on February 12th 1860,
then Florida on February 14th 1860,
then Alabama and Georgia both left the Union on May 2nd 1860,
then Kentucky made a surprise move by seceding the next day on May 3rd,
followed by Tennessee on May 13th,
followed by Louisiana on May 17th,
followed by Arkansas on May 21st (it was at this point the Union realized this wasn't going to end),
The Confederacy was proclaimed as a union of states leaving the North on May 25th,
followed by The Carolinas seceding on June 2nd,
followed by the Oklahoma Territory and the last of the Indian Territory (both part of modern day Oklahoma) on June 4th (not formally recognized by the rest of the Confederacy),
West Virginia also declared independence from Virginia on June 4th, proclaiming it's stay as part of the Union,
These states formed the whole of the Confederacy. Some slave states (Maryland, Missouri, Delaware, Washington D.C (although technically not a state) and West Virginia -although not recognized as a state by the Confederacy-) declared they were going to stay in the Union but not fight their Southern brothers if conflict arose. The Battle of Fort Sumter which occurred between April 12th and 14th 1861 began former war between Union and Confederate forces.
Latin American informal support for the Union in the American Civil War (1862-1865) Edit
When the Confederacy and Union first went to war Latin America didn't choose a side and decided to wait and see who needed the help more. It became apparent the Union by far needed help more as bordering states of the South said they wouldn't fight the Confederacy and if the union tried to force them to they would join it. Union forces also failed to cross the Ohio River into Kentucky on May 14th 1861, when a 30,000 men strong Confederate army hid in the forest and used Guerrilla Warfare with an accompanying Confederate Sniper. Crossing the Ohio River was supposed to be the first Union offensive, and was the only major clash the Union had planned out. The Union was further humiliated and pretty well defeated when Southern forces marched over D.C on June 2nd, leading to Lincoln fleeing North to New York, the new wartime capital of the US. Latin America then informally recognized the Union as the true United States on January 12th 1862, but did not declare war when hearing the British and French Empires had formally recognized the Southern secession on February 3rd and had started providing money and resources as War Aid to the Confederacy on February 6th. On June 12th 1863 the Union made one last attempt at a major offensive, planning a ruthless push from Shinnston, West Virginia onto Mannassas, Virginia then push even harder and seize Manassas, Virginia itself. The offensive was cut off near present day Marlinton, West Virginia and became an over 2 week long conflict as both sides dug trenches into the mountainous terrain, with the Union eventually leading a deadly charge that failed miserably. Peace was made between North and South on March 3rd 1865, with the only major change being West Virginia being re-annexed into Virginia and Oklahoma becoming a formal part of and recognized state of the Confederacy.
Post Civil War-WWI Era Latin America (1865-1914) Edit
This time was a period of great danger for Latin America, as the South was pressing claims on Texas, the Uruguayan War of Independence was fought, and World War I was on the horizon. The era started with the Uruguayan War of Independence, which raged on and off for nearly 6 years but did end in 1870. The Confederacy decided to start a near crisis when Confederate forces "unknowingly" crossed the border into Center, Texas, a small, primarily Southern American cultured postal town. Latin America wouldn't find out about the incident until Latin American military forces happened to go past the town, noticing grey-suited soldiers with the Confederate flag raised over the town. All was resolved peacefully, however the Confederacy decided to join the Triple Entente on March 2nd 1908 (leading to the alliance being renamed to the Quadruple Entente) which led to Latin America and the USA both joining the Triple Alliance on July 13th 1908, which was promptly reformed into the Central Powers on August 2nd. Texas illegally seceded on September 14th, but Latin America had higher priorities and effectively let Texas join the Quadruple Entente on October 1st.
WWI (1914-1922) Edit
The Central Powers had been building up their military since 1908, with the Entente being much more laid back and building up forces at a more manageable pace. The two alliances were both the strongest in history by 1914, the Entente with 2,001,781 soldiers mobilized and the Central Powers with 2,323,192 soldiers mobilized (over 800k of which were in Germany alone) where as The British lead the Entente with just under 1 million troops mobilized across the Empire. World War I would erupt one month after the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28th 1914. During that month the July Crisis would ensue. War broke out progressively from July 28th all the way until February 1st 1915 when Germany unleashed a redone variant of the Schlieffen Plan which involved invading neutral Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, bringing the final Entente member, Britain and her Empire, into the war. The war then proceeded as follows:
- 1914 Germany invades the Polish region of the Russian Empire, defeating Polish resistance. Alsace-Lorraine is seized by France, but soon Germany crushes the French and steamrolls back into the region. In North America, Texan-Confederate forces invade Latin America and occupy the Chihuahua province. The CSA also holds Missouri under it's occupation, and crosses the Ohio river near the end of the year.
- 1915 Germany knocks out the Low Countries and propels into France at mach speed, the British abandon France. Russia falls to revolutions and peaces out of the war, leaving the Polish Republic as a Central Powers member. USA surrenders under immense pressure from the Confederate forces.
- 1916 Latin America surrenders leaving Chihuahua and Sonora as parts of the CSA, who also integrate Texas in the treaty.
- 1917 British Canada invades New England and annexes it, USA surrenders to the British.
- 1918 Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian surrender. Ottomans refuse to sign a peace treaty.
- 1919 The war is over and all is prosperous in the Quadruple Entente after the Ottomans surrender.
- 1920 Ottoman Empire collapses into Turkey, giving former Eastern and Southern regions of the Ottoman Empire to the British.
Peace Treaties: Edit
- Treaty of Berlin: Germany gains Luxembourg and German speaking regions of Belgium. France may not arm Franche-Comté, Champagne-Ardenne or remaining portions of Lorraine for 25 years. France pays 1.5 billion francs in reparations to Germany. France's army may not exceed 100k troops, 250 tanks and 100 aircraft.
- Treaty of Vienna: Austria-Hungary is split into 3 nations: Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and the remaining Austria-Hungary. Romania gains eastern portions of the nation they claim, while the Russian Republic annexes the small remains of the Ruthenian region. No reparations, no army limitations.
- Treaty of Versailles: This treaty deals with the Ottomans and Bulgarians. Both Nations release their occupied regions of former Serbia, now Yugoslavia.
- Bulgaria: Bulgaria cedes Romanian claims to Romania. Bulgaria pays 15 million in reparations.
- Ottoman Empire: Ottoman Empire dissolved into the Turkish Republic. Britain gains mandates in middle east, including Syria and Iraq. Turks may not arm Anatolia for 10 years. Turks pay 150 million in reparations. This section of the Treaty comes into effect on June 2nd, 1921 do to continued tensions.
- Treaty of Toronto: USA pays CSA 250 million in reparations. CSA annexes Texas, Chihuahua and Sonora (including Alta California). CSA also annexes Oklahoma in it's entirety. CSA will occupy Missouri for 5 years and the USA cannot arm Maryland or Maine for 10 years.
Interwar Period and stabilization (1919-1940) Edit
This period saw the peak of Latin America's power.