The following page details the events of The Old Boar Suffered timeline.
For the full timeline, please see the following pages below, organized by century.
- Main article: Overview Timeline (The Old Boar Suffered)
- 799 - Approximate end of Carolingian conquest of Brittany.
- May 831 - At an assembly at Ingelheim, Emperor Louis the Pious appoints Nominoe, Count of Vannes, as ruler of the Bretons.
- 840 - Louis the Pious dies and is succeeded by Charles the Bald.
- 843 - Nominoe of Brittany refuses to support Charles the Bald, and begins a fight for Breton independence.
- Mid 8th Century - Legendary king Sigurd Ring leads an army of Swedes and Western Geats to defeat an army of Danes and East Geats under the command of Harald Wartooth near Bråviken (Brávik), East Götaland. Sigurd wins the battle and became the sovereign ruler of all of Sweden and Denmark. (Hervarar saga)
- Sigurd marries Alfhild, the daughter of king Alf of Alfheim and she gives birth to a son named Ragnar. (Sögubrot af nokkrum fornkonungum)
- Following the death of Alfhild, Sigurd Ring travels to Skiringssal to take part in the great blóts in his oldage. There he spots a very beautiful girl named Alfsol, daughter of King Alf of Vendel (Vendel). The girl's two brothers refuse to allow Sigurd to marry her, and Sigurd fights with the brothers and kills them. Their sister is found however to have been given poison by her brothers so that Sigurd could never have married her. When her corpse is carried to Sigurd, he goes aboard a large ship where he places Alvsol and her brothers. Then he steers the ship with full sails out on the sea, as the ship burns. (Skjöldunga saga)
- Ragnar succeeds his father, but put a subking on the throne of Sweden, king Eysteinn Beli.
- Ragnar marries Thora Hart-of-the-Town after allegedly slaying a giant snake in her possession. (Ragnarssona þáttr).
- Thora gives birth to two sons; one called Eirik, the other Agnar. After Thora's death, Ragnar marries Aslaug, whom some call Randalin, the daughter of Sigurd Fafnir’s Bane and Brynhild Budli’s daughter. They had four sons; Ivar Boneless was the eldest, then Bjorn Ironside, then Hvitserk, then Sigurd. Sigurd becomes known as Sigurd Snake-in-Eye, because of a mark in his eye that looks as if a snake lay around his pupil.
- With the brothers Eirek and Agnar in second in rank after Ragnar, and Ivar third with his younger brothers, Ragnar and his sons conquer Zealand and Reidgotaland, Gotland, and Öland and all the smaller islands in the sea. Ivar sets himself up at Hleidargard in Zealand with his younger brothers, going against the will of King Ragnar.
- Ragnar's sons lead an attack against King Eystein of Sweden while Ragnar is raiding in the Baltics. They are defeated by Eystein's superior numbers, and Agnar is killed in battle. Eirik is captured, but chooses to be killed.
- Ragnar’s sons muster an overwhelming army, and when they are ready, they set sail with a fleet to Sweden. Meanwhile Queen Aslaug goes overland with fifteen hundred knights, wearing armor herself and commanding the army. The group meets up in Sweden and they plunder and burn the Swedish countryside.
- Eystein leads a large army against Ragnar's sons, but is defeated and falls in battle.
- Hoping to best his sons' tales of greatness, Ragnar leads an army of five hundred men, landing on the shores of England.
- Ragnar is defeated by King Ælla of Northumbria, and is killed in a snake pit.
Great Heathen Army
- 865 − Danish raiders first began to settle in England. Led by brothers Halfdan and Ivar the Boneless, they winter in East Anglia, where they demand and receive tribute in exchange for a temporary peace. From there they moved north and attack Northumbria, which was in the midst of a civil war between the deposed king Osberht and a usurper Ælla. The Danes used the civil turmoil as an opportunity to capture York, which they sack and burn.
- 867 − Following the loss of York, Osberht and Ælla form an alliance against the Danes. They launched a counter-attack, but the Danes kill both Osberht and Ælla and set up a Norse kingdom in Northumbria. In response, King Æthelred of Wessex, along with his brother Alfred, march against the Danes, who were positioned behind fortifications in Nottingham, but are unable to draw them into battle. In order to establish peace, King Burhred of Mercia cedes Nottingham to the Danes in exchange for leaving the rest of Mercia undisturbed.
- 869 − Ivar the Boneless returns and demands tribute from King Edmund of East Anglia.
- 870 − King Edmund refuses the demands from the invaders, and Ivar the Boneless defeats and captures him at Hoxne, adding East Anglia to the area controlled by the invading Danes.
- King Æthelred and Alfred attack the Danes at Reading, but are repulsed with heavy losses, pursued by the Great Heathen Army.
- 7 January 871 − At the Battle of Ashdown, Æthelred and Alfred defeat the Danes, who counted among their losses five jarls (nobles). The Danes retreat and set up fortifications at Basing in Hampshire, near Reading. Æthelred attacks the Danish fortifications and is routed.
- March 871 - The Danes follow up their victory with another victory at Meretum.
- 23 April 871 - King Æthelred dies and Alfred takes the throne of Wessex, but not before seriously considering abdicating the throne in light of the desperate circumstances, which were further worsened by the arrival in Reading of a second Danish army from Europe. For the rest of the year Alfred concentrates on attacking with small bands against isolated groups of Danes. He is moderately successful in this endeavor and is able to score minor victories against the Danes, but his army nearly collapses. Eventually Alfred is forced to pay off the invaders in exchange for peace.
- 872 - Harald Fairhair is victorious at the Battle of Hafrsfjord, near Stavanger, and is declared sole King of Norway.
- During the peace with Wessex the Danes turn north and attack Mercia, which they finish off in short order, and captur London in the process.
- King Burgred of Mercia fights in vain against Ivar the Boneless and his Danish invaders for three years until 874, when he flees to Europe.
- 875 − The Danes settle in Dorset, well inside of Alfred’s Kingdom of Wessex, and Alfred quickly makes peace with them.
- 875 - Harald Fairhair launches a series of conquests against several nearby island nations to secure his rule as King of Norway and silence his opponents. Orkneyjar, Hjaltland, and Iceland, which had only recently been discovered, are conquered or subjugated.
- 876 − The Danes break the peace with Wessex by capturing the fortress of Wareham, followed by a similar capture of Exeter the following year.
- 877 − Alfred lays siege, while the Danes waited for reinforcements from Scandinavia. The reinforcing army arrives in the south near Swanage and marches north to cut off Alfred.
- January 878 − Guthrum leads an attack against Wessex seeking to capture Alfred while he wintered in Chippenham. Another Danish army lands in south Wales and moves south with the intent of intercepting Alfred should he flee from Guthrum’s forces. However, they stop during their march to capture a small fortress at Countisbury Hill, held by a Wessex ealdorman named Odda. The Saxons, led by Odda, attack the Danes while they sleep and defeat the superior Danish forces, saving Alfred from being trapped between the two armies. Alfred is forced to go into hiding for the rest of the winter and spring of 878 in the Somerset marshes in order to avoid the superior Danish forces. The Danes are defeated and retreat to Chippenham, where the English pursue and lay siege to Guthrum’s forces. At the Battle of Edington the invaders defeat the West Saxons and Alfred is killed.
- Main article: Battle of Edington (The Old Boar Suffered)
In May of 878 the West Saxons under the command of King Alfred and the Vikings under the command of Guthrum the Old engage at the Battle of Edington. The West Saxons are defeated and Alfred is killed. This is due to a number of factors:
- An estimated 120 ships carrying Viking reinforcements are wrecked off the coast of Swanage. In this timeline the storm dissipates and they manage to land, bringing a large amount of reinforcements to support the Viking advance.
- The main Viking army under the command of Guthrum the Old advances slowly, taking time to organize instead of chasing Alfred throughout the Wessex countryside.
- With the reinforcement army cornering him, Alfred is forced to move quickly, spending little time to muster soldiers in Somerset, Wiltshire, and Hampshire.
- Main article: Ninth Century (The Old Boar Suffered)
- 878 - Alfred's son Edward is declared King of Wessex, but at only a few years old, Edward is unable to rule and the nation is instead governed by a series of regents, causing infighting among several claimants.
- 878 - Ubba Ragnarsson launches a campaign into Wessex and encounters Ealdorman Odda of Devon at the Battle of Cynwit. The West Saxons are successful and Ubba is killed in battle.
- 878 - After a brief siege the Great Heathen Army takes the city of Winchester. The nation of Wessex is conquered.
- 878 - 879 - The Great Heathen Army weathers at Exeter, having spent that year consolidating power in Wessex.
- 879 - Guthrum the Old defeats an army from Devonshire.
- 879 - Much of England is divided among the sons of Ragnar Lodbrok and other influential Norse commanders and leaders. The Kingdom of Jórvík is created under Halfdan Ragnarsson. The Jarldom of East Anglia is granted to Guthrum the Old, who swears allegiance to Ivar the Boneless. Ivar's second oldest son, Sigfroþ, is made Chief of Norfolk, and a vassal of Guthrum. The Petty Kingdom of Suðreyjar under Ivar the Boneless receives the northern sections of Northumbria directly, and Ivar's third son Barid is placed in charge as a direct vassal of Ivar.
- 881 - Guðfrið and Ragnarr Halfdansson of Jórvík launch an invasion of Cornwall, beginning the Cornwall War.
- Main article: Tenth Century (The Old Boar Suffered)
- 930 - Eirik Bloodaxe, favorite son of Harald Fairhair, is appointed as King of Norway alongside his father.
- 933 - Harald Fairhair dies at the age of eighty three and is succeeded by Eirik Bloodaxe. His rule is solidified upon the defeat of his half brothers Olaf and Sigrød in battle.
- Eirik Bloodaxe's harsh rule causes the nobles of Norway to support his more famous brother, Haakon, over his own rule. Eirik flees to England and Haakon is made King of Norway.
- 936 - Harthacnut dies and is succeeded by Gorm the Old, who unites a number of petty kingdoms to create the Kingdom of Denmark.
- 958 - Gorm the Old dies and Harald Bluetooth succeeds him as King of Denmark.
- 962 - Otto I is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII in Rome.
- Main article: Eleventh Century (The Old Boar Suffered)
- 1007 - Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark launches an invasion of Jórvík, beginning the Hvitserk War.
- 25 December 1008 - Sweyn Forkbeard is crowned King of England in Jórvík.
- 1008 - Anlaufr Bothildrsson besieges the city of Durham in Jórvík, supported by Gwynedd in the south, beginning Anlaufr's War.
- 1009 - Sweyn Forkbeard successfully defeats and kills Anlaufr Bothildrsson, before putting down a rebellion in Mercia supported by the Welsh. An enemy army from Ireland lands in southern England and is defeated by Ivar II Kolbjörnsson of Cornwall and Ormar II.
- 1010 - Sweyn Forkbeard dies unexpectedly and is succeeded in Denmark by Harald II. In England however Cnut is declared king.
- The War of the Jarls begins as an English rebellion against Danish rule following the death of the king.
- 1014 - The Battle of Clontarf ends in a decisive victory for Sigtrygg Silkbeard and his Norse coalition. Irish high king Brian Boru is killed, and the power of the high kingship is temporarily shattered.
- 1035 - Snorri Thorfinnsson leads the first successful colonial expedition to Vinland from Greenland.
- 1084 - Thorgeir Snorrason calls for the first assembly to be held in Vinland, laying the foundation for the Vinlander Althing.
- Main article: Twelfth Century (The Old Boar Suffered)
- 1107 - The Norwegian Crusade is launched by Sigurd I of Norway. The Norwegians would successfully raid Muslim towns in Iberia, the Balearic Islands, and the Holy Land, leading to the creation of the Lordship of Sidon within the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
- 1113 - Harthacnut II of England dies in Cyprus while on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, plunging England into a succession crisis. In the ensuing conflict between Sigrid Haroldsson and his brother Ulf Haroldsson, known as the Hereford War, Ulf would be declared king, marking the beginning of the Hereford Era in English history.
- 1120 - The marriage between Henry I, King of France, to Eleanor of Aquitaine is annulled by the pope. Eleanor marries Louis, Count of Paris, prompting an invasion of Aquitaine and its allies Flanders, Boulogne, and Brittany. Eleanor would be defeated in the following year, resulting in the partition of Aquitaine between multiple claimants.
- 1125 - Harald Gille, alleged son of the Norwegian monarch Magnus Barefoot seizes the throne of Ulster as a subking of Glúniairn II, King of Suðreyjar.
- 1127 - Harald Gille arrives in Norway and is acknowledged as a son of Magnus Barefoot. He swears an oath to not claim the throne of Norway while the current king, Sigurd the Crusader, or his heir apparent, Magnus, lived.
- 1135 - Civil war breaks out over the throne of France between Stephen of Blois and Geoffrey Plantagenet, husband of the Norman heiress, Matilda. The only son of Henry I, King of France, named William, had died in a shipwreck ten years earlier, leaving the succession of France unclear. Stephen wins an initial victory, ruling as king until 1140.
- 1136 - Eleanor of Aquitaine, supported by her third husband, Ulf I of England, begins a war to unify the duchy of Aquitaine once more, leading to conflict with William, Count of Toulouse, and his allies. In the 1140 Treaty of Castillon England gained the Duchy of Guyenne from the lands of various belligerents, making the House of Hereford a major power in France to rival that of the French Plantagenet kings.
- 1140 - At the Battle of Bouvines Geoffrey Plantagenet achieves a decisive victory against his opposing coalition, defeating Flanders, Boulogne, Lorraine, and Brabant. Geoffrey is crowned king of France unopposed, establishing a stable dynasty over the throne once more, ending the period of French civil war, known as The Anarchy.
- 1163 - Harold Hereford, Duke of Guyenne, dies and the English king Sweyn III attempts to unite Aquitaine and Guyenne with England once more. As part of a long standing rivalry with the king of France, the ensuing Saintonge War leads to Aquitaine's formal vassalage under France, dividing English lands in the kingdom in two.
- Main article: Thirteenth Century (The Old Boar Suffered)
- 1264 - The Battle of St. Albans outside London, England ends in a Jórvíkist victory for Ulf, Jarl of Jórvík, Olaf Severn, Thegn of Scrobbesborg, and Eric Jarmflotnar, Greve of Weorborg. On the Grantebrian side Guthrum, Greve of Suðseax, died in battle, alongside Fritjof, Thegn of Suðrvǫrn, and Harold, Thegn of Sandvik. Ulf managed to march into the city with Sweyn V, having himself proclaimed protector of the realm. This battle is widely considered the official outbreak of the War of the Axes, an extensive civil war which would plague England for the next few decades.
- 1268 - At Lindborg a Grantebrian attack led by Einar of Stafford and Niels of Djúra-bý on the besieging Jórvíkists resulted in Eric Jarmlotnar's decisive defeat, forcing the Jórvíkist army to retreat into Gloiuborg with the Grantebrian army in pursuit. Ulf launches another offensive into Mercia, meeting Jarl Thorgil at the Battle of Karlakr. To Ulf's surprise, the royal standard is flown in Thorgil's camp, as Sweyn V in full battle armor, leading a royal army from the south, is present on the battlefield. This causes morale to drop in the Jórvíkist army, when it became apparent that they are not fighting the king's poor advisers, but the king himself. The outnumbered and demoralized Jórvíkist army is swiftly defeated, and Ulf and his allies flee into exile. The remaining army surrenders to Sweyn and is pardoned, ending Ulf's hope of taking London.
- 1270 - The Jórvíkists return to southern England after launching an invasion from Calais, spearheaded by Gudmund Anker. In London Ulf declares his intention to be crowned king, much to the surprise of local nobles and allies alike. When a majority of local lendmenn vote against this proposition, a compromise is signed instead, making Ulf the official heir to Sweyn's throne. In the meantime Ulf is restored to his position of protector of the realm, essentially making him acting king.
- 1 January 1271 - The New Years' Day Massacre is perpetrated by Alfvin II, Jarl of the Five Boroughs. Ulf, Jarl of Jórvík and leader of the Jórvíkist cause, along with his second son Cnut, Egil Eysteinsson, Thegn of Vargeisl, Halfdan Voss, Thegn of Engfólksheim, and numerous other Jórvíkist nobles are slain, and their armies, camped outside the city, are assaulted. The brutal assassination of many of the Jórvíkist leaders causes a complete reversal of their luck in the north.
- 1271 - At the Battle of Mortimer's Cross, Harold Ulfsson defeats the Mercians under Jarl Thorgil II, and again at the Siege of Hereford. Thorgil is captured and executed, and along with the death of his son Einar decades earlier, the jarldom's uncertain succession leads to the Mercian Civil War. Later that year the Grantebrian claimant Abel Estridsen is killed, and Christopher Ericsson ascends to the throne of Mercia as a Jórvíkist supporter.
- 1271 - At the Battle of Vaktafr Harold Ulfsson captures the city of London. Sweyn, Margaret, and the young Harold Swyensson flee north out of Jórvík. The city of Jórvík is liberated, and Harold has the heads of his father and comrades replaced with the heads of Rolf, Jarl of the Five Boroughs, who was slain in the battle.
- July 1271 - Harold Ulfsson is crowned Harold IV, officially deposing Sweyn V as king. Over the next few years Harold combats the remaining Grantebrian supporters across the kingdom, capturing Hvitstaður, one of the last Grantebrian strongholds in the north, leading to the fall of Copeland, and defeating the Grantebrian aligned Scottish army at the Battle of Carlisle in 1274.
- 1280 - Harold IV of England is deposed in a rebellion led by Gudmund Anker. The former king, Sweyn V, is released from prison by Anker and restored to the throne for a period of ten months. At the Battle of Barrann the following year Anker would be killed, and Harold IV restored to the throne.
- 1282 - Outbreak of the Guyenne Civil War, as the culmination of the last several years of conflict in Aquitaine between the Grantebrian jarl Eric II, father-in-law of Gudmund Anker's daughter Matilda, and English supporters, including Amanieu VIII of Albret. The lapse in English rule during Anker's Rebellion had developed a faction in Guyenne in favor of continued separation from the English crown, headed by the Count of Marmande, and later that year the appearance of Henrik Christophersson, the Jarl of Kent's second son, and Eric II's nephew, who sought to usurp the duchy once more, created a proper rebellion.
- 1283 - Gudmund Anker's son Einar, who fled to Luxembourg after Barrann, returns to the Lowlands supported by the Duke of Brabant, and seizes Eu and Ponthieu from a small English garrison, creating the independent Duchy of Picardy. Einar welcomes Margaret of Anjou and her son Harold, further attracting attention from Harold IV in England. War between Flanders and Brabant breaks out, supported by Harold IV, to weaken Einar's ally in the region. While preparing for a proper invasion to restore order in the region, Harold IV dies of natural causes in England, and is succeeded by his eldest son Ulf II.
- 1284 - The Jarldom of Jórvík is usurped by Eystein Anker, Gudmund's brother, from Ulf II's brother Haakon. The Jórvíkists launch a campaign to restore Haakon, and the city of Jórvík is captured by Christopher Estridsen, Jarl of Mercia. Rather than relinquish control of the jarldom however, Christopher made peace with the Grantebrians and defected against the Jórvíkists. Gloiuborg is also captured, and with Christopher declares himself king of an independent Mercian kingdom, the Tamworth Union.
- 1284 - The Second Lendmenn War breaks out when Ulf II's regent, Roald Svartfjall, refuses to give up power to the lendmenn.
- 1291 - Harold, son of Sweyn V, launches an invasion of England from Picardy. At the Battle of Holvel however, Harold is killed. Margaret of Anjou is later captured in the city of London.
- 1294 - Sweyn Oxeborg kills Ulf II at the Battle of Bosworth Field, being crowned Sweyn VI in London. Sweyn's victory would mark the end of Hereford rule in England, and the beginning of the Oxeborg Era in English history.
- 1298 - The first major rebellion against Sweyn's rule breaks out in the Jarldom of Jórvík, where the brother of the late King Ulf II, Haakon, is proclaimed king counter to Sweyn's regime in the south.Later that year Haakon is killed at the Battle of Coventry, and his son Cnut is captured by Sweyn and his allies.
- 1299 - The Jórvíkist ally Robert III, Duke of Burgundy is defeated by a combined army of Halfdan Oxeborg, Greve of Berkland, Erling Jarmflotnar of Calais, and Einar Anker of Picardy at Abbeville, widely accepted as the end of the War of the Axes.
- Main article: Fourteenth Century (The Old Boar Suffered)
- 1315 - 1317 - A series of large-scale famines strike Europe, causing millions of deaths, and generally ending the period of growth and prosperity that Europe had experienced since the eleventh century.
- 1305 - The Second English Conquest of Wales is launched by Sweyn VI, leading to the subjugation of the entire region within the next two decades.
- 1329 - The Restoration War breaks in England during the reign of Ormar I Sweynsson, as an attempted restoration of the House of Hereford by Charles, Duke of Guyenne and several English allies. The following year Ormar is killed and succeeded by his brother Anlaufr as King of England.
- 1337 - The first phase of the Aquitaine Wars begins between the Kingdom of England and Francia.
- 1347 - The Black Plague arrives in Europe via Genoese galleys in Sicily arriving from Caffa. Within the next few decades the disease would spread to most of Europe and heavily devastate its population.
- 1404 - The Oxeborg Civil War breaks out when the Jarldom of Wessex launches a rebellion against Ormar II of England. Ormar is deposed four years later by Edmund I.
- 1412 - Edmund I dies and his son Sigurd is defeated by Sweyn VI's grandson, who is crowned Harald V of England. Harald would rule until his death in 1420, passing the throne to his son Alfr, ending the Oxeborg Civil War.