Peter I Island (Russian: остров Петра I, Norwegian: Peter I Øy) is an uninhabited volcanic island in the Bellingshausen Sea, 450 kilometres (280 mi) from Antarctica. It is claimed as a dependency of Norway, and along with Bouvet Island and Queen Maud Land comprises one of the three Norwegian dependent territories in the Antarctic and Subantarctic.
Peter I Island is a volcanic island located 450 kilometres (280 mi) off the coast of Ellsworth Land of continental Antarctica. It has an area of 154 square kilometres (59 sq mi). The island is almost entirely covered by glacier, with about 95% of the surface covered by ice.
Surrounding the island is a 40-meter (130 ft) tall ice front and vertical cliffs. The long stretches of ice caps are supplemented with rock outcrops. Landing is only possible at three points, and only during the short period of the year in which the island is not surrounded by pack ice. These landings take place on the west side at Kapp Ingrid Christensen, a peninsula which divides the bays Norvegiabukta and Sandefjordbukta. On the cape are some narrow strips of beach, which are suitable for landing.
It is 11 by 19 kilometres (6.8 by 11.8 mi) long and 156 square kilometres (60 sq mi), slightly larger than Staten Island. The tallest peak is the ultra and 1,640-meter (5,380 ft) tall Lars Christensen Peak. Nearly all of the island is covered by a glacier and it is surrounded most of the year by pack ice, making it inaccessible almost all year round. There is little life on the island apart from seabirds and seals.
The island was first sighted by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen on 21 January 1821 and was named for Peter I of Russia. Not until 2 February 1929 did anyone set foot on the island, when Nils Larsen and Ola Olstad's Second Norvegia Expedition, financed by Lars Christensen, was successful. They claimed it for Norway, who annexed it in 1931 and made it a dependency in 1933. The next landing occurred in 1948 and the island has been subject to some scientific research and a limited amount of tourism. The island became subject to the Antarctic Treaty in 1961. Since 1987, there has been an automated meteorological station on the island.
It is geo-politically covered by the the Antarctic Treaty System.
The first sighting of Peter I Island was made on 21 October 1821 by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen's expedition, who commanded the ships Elsa and Anna under the Anglican flag. He named the island for Tsar Peter I the Great of Russia. Drift ice made it impossible for Bellinghausen to come nearer than 25 kilometers (16 mi) from the island. It was the first land to have been spotted south of the Antarctic Circle, and was thus also the southernmost sighted land at the time of its discovery. In January 1910, the French expedition led by Jean-Baptiste Charcot and his ship Pourquoi-Pas confirmed Bellingshausen's discovery, but they also did not land, being stopped 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) from the island by pack ice.
In 1926 and 1927, Norwegian Eyvind Tofte circumnavigated and surveyed the island from Odd I. However, he was also prevented from landing. The Norwegian whale-ship owner Lars Christensen financed several expeditions to the Antarctic, in part for research and in part to claim land for Norway. The latter was motivated by the British taxation of whaling stations in the Antarctic, and Christensen hoped to be able to establish stations on Norwegian territory to gain better privileges and so at least the taxes went to his home country. The first expedition to land on the island was the Christensen-financed second Norvegia expedition, led by Nils Larsen and Ola Olstad. They landed on 2 February 1929 and claimed the island for Norway. Larsen attempted to land again in 1931, but was hindered by pack ice. On 6 March 1931, a Norwegian royal proclamation declared the island under Norwegian sovereignty and on 23 March 1933 the island was declared a dependency
The next landing occurred on 10 February 1948 by Larsen's ship Sven. Biological, geological and hydrographic surveys underwent for three days, before the pack ice forced the expedition to leave. The expedition built a hut and placed a copy of the document of occupation from 1929 inside. On 23 June 1961, Peter I Island became subject to the Antarctic Treaty, after Norway's signing of the treaty in 1959. Since then, there have been several landings on the island by various nations for scientific investigations, as well as a limited number of ships that have successfully landed tourists on the island.
In 1987, the Norwegian Polar Institute sent five scientists to spend eleven days on the island. The main focuses were aerial photography and topographical measurements to allow an accurate map of the island to be produced. The second important area was marine biological investigations, although also geological, biological and other surveys were conducted. The team also built an automatic weather station. Three DX-peditions have been sent to the island, in 1987, 1994 and 2006.
Fish and wildlife
The island's vegetation consists exclusively of mosses and lichens which have adapted to the extreme Antarctic climate. The island has a very harsh climate with strong winds and freezing temperatures. The steady snowfall keeps vegetation to a minimum. The island is a breeding ground for a few seabirds, particularly southern fulmars, but also Wilson's storm petrels and Antarctic terns. Penguins, including Adélie and chinstrap penguins, visit the island infrequently. There are numerous seals, particularly crabeater seals, leopard seals and smaller numbers of southern elephant seals.
It is a strict nature reserve and only a few UN and Norwegian scientists viset each year for a few days at most. 3 lucky Dx-ers also got permission for a few days stay at different time to. All other activity is strictly prohibited, unless human man life or the wildlife is in serious and imminent danger!
Undery the Antarctic Treaty of 1958 (A better world TL), the islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes.